World Machine中文翻译帮助手册

  5 . Layout Generator布局生成器

  The Layout Generator is a graphical design tool that allows you to bridge the gap between fully procedural and fully artist-created terrains. With a Layout Generator, you have a suite of vector drawing tools that let you craft terrain areas, insert roads and rivers, draw regions of influence as effect masks, and much more.

  布局生成器是一个图形设计工具,桥接你和艺术创建地形中间的差距,有了布局生成器,你就有了一个让你可以创建地形区域的矢量绘图工具,插入道路和河流,绘制影响遮罩的区域,以及更多.

  5.1 Layout Generator Basics布局生成器基础

  To create a Layout Generator, go to the Layout View:

  创建一个布局生成器来布局视图:

  Click the New Layout button in the upper-left corner of the above photo. As you create layout generators, they will appear as tabs across the top of the view.

  如上图中,点击左上方的新建布局按钮(“new”)创建一个布局生成器,他们将呈现在顶部的选项卡视图中.

  When a layout is selected in the view, the screen will change to the Layout Editing mode, as you can see below:

  在布局视图处于选中状态时,屏幕会切换到编辑模式的布局,比如下面:

  A Layout Generator acts as a container for shapes. You can have many different layout generators. each one you create will show up as an associated device in the Device Workview. The output of the layout generator can then be used just like any other component in the workflow.

  布局生成器作为形状的容器。你可以有许多不同的布局.你创建的每一个都显示关联到设备工作视图中的设备.然后,布局生成器可以输出任何其他工作流中的组件.

  Also, note that you can change the currently viewed output while editing a layout generator and its shapes. This ability lets you view the final output from farther down the device flow while working on a layout generator.

  同样,请注意,你可以更改当前正在查看的编辑布局生成器的输出和它的形状。此功能允许你查看最终的输出从一个很远的设备流生成器上.

  Layout Generator Options布局生成器选项

  ● Rendering Mode: This allows you to choose whether to create full detail or reduced-detail shapes. In most cases you will want to leave this set to "Accurate", unless you are working with a layout containing a great number of shapes that is building extremely slowly.

  ● 渲染模式:这使你可以选择是否创建完整的细节或减少形状的细节.在大多数情况下你会设置为"Accurate",除非你正在使用一个布局,其中包含大量的形状,那么它的创建将非常缓慢.

  ● Display as Mask: Causes the output of the layout generator to be flagged as a mask rather than a terrain, and display as such. Useful when creating a layout that is intended to be used as a mask.

  ● 显示为遮罩:布局生成器的输出的目标是一个标记而不是一个地形,并显示为这样.当创建布局时,被用做预制蒙版

  ● Use Breakup: Enables fractal breakup on the shapes in the layout. This allows you to add more natural-looking profiles to your basic geometric shapes. See section 5.4 for details.

  ● 使用分裂:在布局中的形状上启用分形破碎.这可以让你的基本几何形状看起来更具有自然外观.详情见5.4条

  ● Invert Values: inverts all height values of the layout. Useful when creating masks, as well as things like canyons and other terrain where you'll be removing rather than adding things.

  ● 反转数值:反转所有布局的高度值.这是有用,当创建遮罩以及像峡谷和其他地形的时候,在这里会被删除,而不是添加东西.

  ● Shape List Button: brings up a dialog that lists all shapes contained within the current layout generator. Clicking on a shape in the list will select it, allowing you to locate and manage many shapes.

  ● 形状列表按钮:会打开一个对话框,其中列出了在当前布局生成器内所载的所有形状.点击列表中的一个形状将选择它,允许你去查找和管理许多形状.

  ● File Button: Imports or exports shapes. See the Shape I/O section below for more information.

  ● 文件按钮:输入或输出形状. 请参阅下面的I/O截面形状的更多信息.

  5.2 Creating and using Layout Shapes创建和使用布局形状

  On the left is the Shape Library, where you can access the various shapes available for you to draw. To create a new shape, simply select the variety you desire from the libray, and click-drag in the terrain area. All shapes are created in a similar way, although some allow you more flexibility during shape creation. For example, polygon and path shapes can be either sketched or plotted more precisely by clicking individual vertices rather than dragging.

  左边是图形库,你可以绘制各种形状.只需从库中中选择你想要的图形种类,就可以创建新的形状,然后单击拖动到地形区域.所有的形状都是以这种方式创建的,尽管有些形状创建需要更大的灵活性.例如,多边形路径的形状可以是草绘或更精确地绘制通过单击各个顶点拖拽.

  Note that around each created shape there is a "transition zone", where the shape's influence fades away to the background. When multiple shapes overlap, the one with the greatest height governs.

  请注意,每个创建的形状周围有一个"过渡区",形状的影响到背景逐渐消失。当多个形状重叠时,有最大的一个形状的高度控制.

  You can also choose to set a shape to Subtractive mode, in which case it will be subtracted from all of the positive shapes at that same point.

  你也可以选择的形状设置为消减模式,在这种情况下,两个相同的点将进行布尔运算.

  Shapes can be selected by left-clicking on them. Multiple shapes can be either drag-selected using the selection marquee, or added to the selection individually by holding down shift while clicking on new shapes.

  可以通过单击鼠标左键选择他们的形状。多个形状可以通过使用选取框拖动选定,或单独选择一个通过按住shift键的同时单击新的形状来选择.

  Shape Properties形状属性

  Once a shape has been created, you can bring up a shape's properties by double-clicking on it:

  一旦创建了一个形状,你可以打开一个形状的属性通过双击它:

  All shapes have several properties in common that can be edited.

  所有形状都有几个共同的属性,它可以进行编辑.

  ● Default Value: Controls the height value of the shape

  ● 默认值:控制形状的高度值

  ● Opacity: The power of this shape versus the background.

  ● 不透明度:相对于背景的透明度.透明度越低,背景显示的越高亮.

  ● Falloff distance: the distance between the border of the shape and the region in which the shape has no influence on the terrain.

  ● 衰减距离:形状的边缘和形状的区域之间的距离对地形的影响.

  ● Falloff type: Many shapes allow you to how you wish the falloff zone to be defined:

  ● 衰减类型:许多形状允许你去定义衰减的区域:

  ○ Exterior falloff means that the shape is full strength to the border, and then falls away on the outside of the shape.

  ○ 外衰减意味着边界的形状充满力量,然后消失在形状的外面.

  ○ Interior falloff means the shape's falloff occurs inside of the shape, reaching no influence at the border of the shape.

  ○ 形状的内部衰减意味着该形状的衰减发生在内部,达到形状边界,但不影响形状边界.

  ● Operation: Shapes may be positive or negative. A negative shape is subtracted away from other existing shapes.

  ● 操作: 形状可以是正向的或反向的.一个反向的的形状相当于减去的存在的形状.

  ● Shape Falloff function: you can select from a variety of preset falloff functions.

  ● 形状衰减函数: 你可以选择一个预设的衰减函数类型.

  ○ Linear falloff provides an even gradient to the falloff.

  ○ 线性过渡衰减提供了一个平滑的渐变衰减.

  ○ Squared falloff provides gentle lower regions and a sharp ridge on top.

  ○ 平方衰减可以提供平缓较低的地区和锋利的山脊顶部

  ○ Square root falloff provides a gentle top transition and steep lower areas

  ○ 平方根衰减提供了一个平缓的顶部过渡和陡峭的下游区域.

  ○ S-falloff provides smooth falloff on both the top and bottom of the shape.

  ○ S-衰减提供了一个在底部和顶部的光滑衰减 .

  ○ Custom falloff allows you to define a custom falloff function, which can be very useful for among other things, defining road and river profiles.

  ○ 自定义衰减允许你去定义一个自定义的衰减函数.这是非常有用的在其他事情中定义方法和河流配置文件

  ● Falloff Fader: Lets you control how much influence the falloff function chosen above has on the falloff curve. A value of 0% will always give you a linear falloff gradient, while 100% means that you are using the chosen function.

  ● 衰减控制器: 使你可以控制衰减曲线,选择对衰减函数.值为0% 你可以用一条渐变衰减函数,当100%时意味着你正在使用这个选择函数.

  ● Shape Breakup Participation: Controls the extent to which this shape is effected by the Layout Generator's fractal breakup setting.

  ● 参与分形:控制形状被布局生成器的分形破散设置的影响程度.

  5 . 2 .1 Transforming Shapes转换形状

  Dragging a selected shape will move the shape in the direction you drag. Right-clicking brings up the a context menu for the selected shapes:

  拖动所选形状沿拖动方向移动.右键点击带出上下菜单来选择形状:

  All shapes support at least some transformation options. These allow you to translate, rotate, or scale the selected shapes. Simply select the transformation option you want (or use the Hotkey for it from the the Layout View) and drag in the viewport to perform the action. Clicking without dragging will end the transformation mode.

  所有的形状都支持一些基本的转换选项,你可以去平移,旋转,和缩放所选的形状.简单的选择你想要的转换选项(或使用热键从布局视图中)并在视图区域中拖拽完成你的操作.点击没有拖拽动作将结束这个转换模式.

  Transformation Center中心转换

  Holding down shift or ctrl while rotating or scaling will perform each action around the shape's own origin rather than the center-point of the group. The graphic below illustrates the difference:

  当旋转或缩放的时候,按住Shift键和Ctrl键将要围绕形状的本身执行每一个操作,而不是组本身.下图阐述了它们的差异:

  Shapes can also be copied or pasted by selecting the appropriate option from the edit menu, or using the standard CTRL-X, CTRL-C, CTRL-V shortcut keys.

  形状也可以通过选择适当的选项从编辑菜单中复制或粘贴,或使用标准的CTRL-X, CTRL-C, CTRL-V快捷键.

  5 . 2 .2 Other shape options其他形状选项

  ● Enable/Disable Shape: if a shape is disabled, it no longer effects the world in any way.

  ●启用/禁用形状:如果一个形状被禁用,它不再以任何方式影响世界 .

  ● Lock Shape: make the shape unchangable until this is selected again. Use this to prevent accident modification of important shapes.

  ● 锁定形状:使形状不可改变指导再次被选择.使用锁定可以防止重要的形状被意外修改.

  ● Delete Shape: As you might expect, this deletes the currently selected shape(s)!

  ● 删除形状:如你所料,就是删除当前选择的形状!

  ● Bring to Front/Send to Back: Moves the selected shapes forward or backward in the Z order. This has no effect on output, but allows you to change which shape is selected first between overlapping shapes.

  ●置于顶层/置于底部:在Z顺序里(排序A-Z)向前或向后移动选择的形状.对输出没有影响, 但是允许你改变在重叠形状之间第一个被选择的形状.

  5.3 Vertex-based shape options基于顶点的形状选项

  The polygon and path tools are defined by a sequence of vertices. There are some additional editing options available for vertex based shapes.

  多边形和路径工具被定义为一个系列的顶点工具.他们有一些额外的可用的基于形状的编辑选项

  5 . 3 .1 Bezier Shapes贝塞尔形状

  Vertex-based shapes support bezier splines for smoothly interpolating between each vertex. This is slower to process but is often highly desireable to create smooth and complex geometry.

  基于顶点的形状支持在每个顶点之间光滑的插补贝塞尔样条曲线.这是一个缓慢的过程,但经常对于创建光滑和复杂的几何体是非常理想的.

  You can convert between linear and bezier curve segments by checking or unchecking the "Use Bezier Path" option in the right-click context menu for that shape.If a shape has bezier curves enabled, the shape will have additional handles available representing the bezier control points for the curve.

  你可以右键点击形状在弹出的上下文菜单上"选中"或"不选"这个"Use Bezier Path"并在直线和贝塞尔曲线之间转换.如果一个形状已经启用贝塞尔曲线,那么该形状将提供更多的表示贝塞尔曲线的控制曲柄点.

  By default, the handles on either side of a vertex are linked together to provide a smooth transition through that vertex, but you can override this behavior by holding down shift wile dragging a bezier handle.

  默认情况下,顶点两侧的曲柄连接在一起,以便为顶点提供一个光滑的过渡.但是你可以以重写此行为,方法是按住shift键拖动贝塞尔曲柄.

  In addition, you can set all of the bezier handles in a shape at once to provide a smooth shape by selecting the "Perform Curve Smoothing" option from the context menu.

  另外,你可以通过上下文菜单选择"Perform Curve Smoothing"选项来设置所有的贝塞尔曲柄在一个形状上动态提供一个光滑的形状.

  5 . 3 .2 Vertex Editing顶点编辑

  Vertices have their own context menu that you access by right-clicking on a specific vertex. This allows you to set some of their properties directly.

  各个顶点都有它们自己的上下文菜单入口,通过右键点击一个具体的的顶点,你可以去直接设置它们的属性.

  ● Enter Precise Value: This option allows you to enter specific numbers for the (X,Y) coordinate of the vertex and its elevation value.

  ● 输入精确值:这个选项允许你去为顶点的(X,Y)坐标输入一个精确的数字和海拔值.

  ● Value Key-Point: Toggle whether the selected vertex is interpolated or whether it is a "keyframe" that has its value set manually.

  ● 关键点值.不管是转换选择添插的顶点还是一个"关键帧"顶点都可以手动设置值

  ● Delete Vertex: Removes the vertex from the shape, connecting the two vertices on either side together.

  ● 删除顶点:从形状中移除顶点,此顶点两侧的两个顶点将连接在一起.

  ● Subdivide Vertex: Inserts two new vertices adjacent to the selected vertex.

  ● 细分顶点:插入两个新的顶点,毗邻所选顶点.

  ● Break Vertex Welds : Break any welds that involve the selected vertex.

  ● 打破顶点焊接:打破任何焊接接头,包括涉及的所选顶点.

  In addition, there is a quick shortcut for setting shape heights on a per-vertex basis. Right-click on a vertex and without releasing the mouse button, drag up or down to quickly set the height value of that point.

  另外,在每一个基础顶点上有一个快速设置形状高度的方法.你可以右键点击一个顶点,不要释放鼠标按钮,向上或向下拖拽可以快速的设置顶点的高度.

  5.3.3 Vertex Welding顶点焊接

  You can weld together vertices that occur on different shapes. Welded vertices will always occupy the same position in space, allowing you to link several shapes together in, for example, a road or river.

  你可以将不同形状的顶点焊接在一起.焊接顶点将总是占据相同的位置,你可以将几个形状连接在一起,比如,一条道路或一条河.

  To weld together vertices, simply drag one vertex over another. The cursor will hilight to show the potential welding action.

  对于将顶点焊接在一起,只需简单的拖拽一个顶点到另一个上.鼠标指针将高亮显示可能的焊接动作.

  After welding, any transformations performed on one shape that effect that vertex will also move the linked vertex in the other shape(s).

  焊接后,在一个图形上执行任何的转换动作都将要移动在其他图形上连接的顶点.

  If you decide later that you wish to break the weld, simply select the vertex or shape in question and right-click to bring up the context menu, and select "Break Weld"

  如果你以后希望断开这个焊接,简单的方法是:在有问题的图形上选择顶点,然后右键点击弹出菜单,选择"Break Weld".

  5.4 Fractal Breakup分形破碎

  Fractal Breakup allows you to distort the unnaturally straight edges often produced by the geometric primitives. This is often desireable when creating natural shapes.

  分形破碎允许你去扭曲不自然的径直边缘,经常用来制作简单的几何体形状.当创建自然形状时非常理想的.

  Fractal Breakup must be enabled on a per-layout basis when you want to use it. However, you can decide on a per-shape basis which shapes are distorted by changing that Shape's "Fractal Breakup Participation" value.

  当你想使用分形破碎时,每一块基础布局必须得启用它.然而,你可以通过改变形状的"Fractal Breakup Participation"值来决定每一个基础形状被扭曲的程度.

  You can change the scale and intensity of the breakup effect by editing the Fractal Breakup properties:

  通过编辑分形破碎属性,你可以改变比例和强度对分形的影响:

  ● Fractal Breakup: The intensity of the effect. Lower values provide a more subtle distortion.

  ●分形破碎:强度的影响.值越低给于更精细的变形.

  ● Breakup Scale: The distance that the distortion effect is applied for. Large values will produce slowly varying but large amplitude variations, while low values produce more of a ripple effect.

  ● 分形比例: 变形被应用的影响距离.值越大变化越缓慢,但是振幅变化也大,而低值则产生更多的连锁反应.

  ● Roughness: The complexity of the edge. This number corresponds to the number of octaves of fractal noise to be applied

  ● 粗糙度: 边缘的复杂度.这个数字对应用于分形噪声的八度音阶的数量.

  5.5 Sourcing vs. Modifying terrain with a Layout Generator来源工具. 修改布局生成器地形

  You can use the Layout Generator in your world in two different ways.

  你可以在你的世界中用两种不同的方式来使用布局生成器.

  1. Use the Layout Generator as a Generator, creating terrain or mask information to be wired to a different device in the world.

  1.使用布局生成器作为一个生成器,创建地形或遮罩信息在世界中来连接不同的设备.

  2. Use the Layout Generator to modify an existing terrain by connecting that terrain into the Primary input port on the LG.Deciding on the type of connection to use.

  2.使用布局生成器来修改现有的地形,地形连接到主Layout Generator上的输入端口.决定要使用的连接的类型.

  You should use the Layout Generator as a source of terrain when you want to generate guide shapes for a fractal generator or a mask for a particular effect. The image below shows the result of connecting the output of a Layout Generator to a Perlin Noise device:

  当你要生成塑造一个分形生成器或一个特殊效果的遮罩时,你应该使用布局发电机作为地形源.下图显示了一个布局生成器输出连接到一个柏林噪声设备的结果:

  On the other hand, you should use the Layout Generator to modify the terrain when you want to embed shapes into the terrain

  另一方面,当你想嵌入形状到地形时,你应该使用布局生成器去修改地形.

  For example, leveling areas to a certain height, creating a road that cuts/fills through an existing terrain, or inserting waterways.

  例如,平整区域到一定高度,通过消减/填充在一个存在的地形上创建一条道路或插入一个水道.

  5.6 Importing and Exporting Shapes导入和导出形状

  You can import or export shapes with one of several vector-graphics art formats. In particular, the SVG and AI formats are supported.

  您可以导入或导出形状与几种矢量图技术格式.尤其,SVG和AI格式被支持.

  Import Scaling导入比例

  How to scale the raw coordinates is the most important decision when moving shapes to and from World Machine. You can have WM treat the file coordinates as meters, kilometers, a custom scale factor. A display shows you the current region to be exported to a file.

  怎么去规模原始坐标是非常重要的决定,当你移动图形在World Machine时.你可以使WM的文件坐标看成是meters(米),kilometers(千米),自定义比例系数.一个显示当前区域被导出的一个文件

  You can also choose to flip the Y-axis of all of the imported shapes; this is useful when interacting with a program that measures from an origin in the top-left corner instead of the bottom-left system that World Machine uses.

  你也可以选择翻转所有导入形状的Y轴;这与程序交互时是非常有用的,从原点左上角替换左下角的系统,以便在World Machine上使用.

  Note that there are some serious limitations in what information can be imported or exported; any per-vertex data you have set will be lost, and World-Machine specific shape information also will not transfer. Nonetheless it can be very useful to be able to re-use vector data from other sources or export the exact paths of splines to the next stage in your production pipeline.

  注意在信息被导入和导出的时候有一些限制.你设置的任意的顶点数据将丢失,World-Machine特定形状的信息也不会转换.尽管如此,它仍然是非常有用的,它能够重复使用矢量数据从其它来源或样条曲线的确切路径导出到生产流水线的下一个阶段.

  5.7 Curve Editor曲线编辑器

  Layout View contains a curve editor to allow you to define custom falloff profiles for shapes as well as view the elevation profile of a vertex based shape.

  布局视图中包含一条曲线编辑器允许你定义自定义衰减类型的配置文件以及查看一种基于顶点的形状的高度变化.

  The horizontal axis shows the distance along the curve, while the vertical axis shows elevation. The curve editor works in one of several modes depending on what you're editing; when modifying a falloff curve, you can freely add new knots to the curve. When editing a lofting curve (heights along a path), the knots are fixed in position and can only be changed in height. These two modes of operating are reflected in the Editing Method :

  横轴显示沿曲线距离,纵轴显示海拔.曲线编辑器运作在根据你所要编辑的几种模式;当你修改一个衰减曲线时,你可以自由添加新的节点到曲线.当编辑一个放样曲线(沿路径的高度),这个节点位置是固定的,只能改变高度.这两个操作的模式是反映在编辑方法中的:

  ● Vertex mode allows you to add or delete vertices, and move them horizontally

  ● 顶点模式允许你添加或删除顶点,并水平地移动它们.

  ● Modify mode allows you to change the height of existing points only.

  ● 修改模式允许你只能改变现有顶点的高度.

  Lastly, you can load and save preset falloff curves so that you can re-use particular profiles among layouts or projects.

  最后,你可以加载和保存预设衰减曲线,以便你可以重复使用特定的配置文件在布局或项目中.